Browse Content     The Old Man and the Sea

This novella tells the story of Santiago, an old fisherman who struggles to reel in a giant marlin far off the coast of Cuba.

Below are some reading passages that we have hand picked to supplement this book. Be sure to read the passage summaries and our suggestions for instructional use.

12th Grade Informational Text 1420L
The Lost Generation
Mike Kubic 2016
Passage Summary:

"The Lost Generation" describes the political and social climate of a period of American history in which numerous highly celebrated authors and artists from the United States grew disillusioned with and disavowed their home country.

When and How to Pair:

Introduce this text before students begin reading the novel, in order to provide background information on Ernest Hemingway and other “Lost Generation” authors. As students read The Old Man and the Sea, ask them to use Kubic’s article to keep track of what themes and characteristics of “Lost Generation” writing they identify within the novel.

9th Grade Psychology 1070L
Forever Young: America's Obsession with Never Growing Old
Dale Archer 2013
Passage Summary:

According to Dale Archer, our culture puts a high premium on youth. Why are we so obsessed with looking young? Has it gone too far?

When and How to Pair:

A major theme in The Old Man and the Sea revolves around youth and age, as the protagonist of the novel, Santiago, is an elderly fisherman who requires the help of a boy to live a normal life. After reading the scene where the boy helps Santiago to prepare for his fishing trip (pg. 28), analyze the way youth and age are portrayed in the story. Are they portrayed in the same way that American society views them according to the article — youth is good, and age is bad?

9th Grade Short Story 1300L
The Reef
Samuel Scoville, Jr. 1923
Passage Summary:

In this short story by American writer Samuel Scoville, Jr., a young Caribbean boy accompanied by his grandfather goes sponge diving in the reef where a tiger shark killed his father—and where he faces dangers of his own.

When and How to Pair:

Introduce The Reef after students have read up to page 105 in The Old Man and the Sea, when Santiago wonders if the shark attacks were a form of retribution for his earlier pride and greed. Have students analyze the different ways pride and greed motivate the protagonists in the two stories. How are the protagonists in both the text and the novel overconfident and prideful about the tasks before them?

8th Grade Poem
William Ernest Henley 1875
Passage Summary:

William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) was an English poet, critic, and editor. His best known poem is "Invictus," published in 1875, which he wrote just following the amputation of his foot due to tuberculosis.

When and How to Pair:

In The Old Man and the Sea, the protagonist struggles to reel in an enormous fish and then loses much of that fish to sharks and other predators on the way back to the dock. After reading the section when the sharks finish eating the fish (pg. 119), have students compare and contrast Santiago’s attitude towards the adversity he faced at sea with the attitude of the narrator of the poem. Is Santiago, as the speaker in the poem suggests, “the captain of [his] fate”?

9th Grade Speech 1020L
Winston Churchill's 'Never Give In' Speech
Prime Minister Winston Churchill 1941
Passage Summary:

Winston Churchill's speech "Never Give In," discusses the recent successes of the United Kingdom in World War II.

When and How to Pair:

The protagonist of The Old Man and the Sea experiences great difficulty while at sea through multiple days of struggling to reel in an enormous fish and then protecting the fish that he caught from sharks. Introduce this text after students have finished reading The Old Man and the Sea, in order to generate a discussion around overcoming adversity — one of the central themes within the novel. Churchill lectures on the lessons that can be learned from difficult circumstances. Have students read Churchill’s speech and discuss whether or not they believe that Santiago learned the lessons that Churchill argues can be learned from adversity.

11th Grade Short Story 950L
The Open Boat
Stephen Crane 1901
Passage Summary:

In Stephen Crane's "The Open Boat," several men are stranded at sea in a small dinghy. Crane uses vivid imagery to weave a story about survival, brotherhood, death, and the futility of trying to defeat nature's powerful forces.

When and How to Pair:

Introduce this text after students have completed the novel in order to analyze themes around the relationship between humanity and nature through a cross-text analysis. Pair The Old Man and the Sea with "The Open Boat" and ask students to analyze how Santiago’s struggle to reel in a great fish and the subsequent shark attacks represent a struggle between humanity and nature. Analyze the theme of humanity’s relation to nature in the two stories. How does Santiago’s journey at sea compare and contrast to the men on the boat in "The Open Boat"?