por Chief Red Cloud
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Excerpt from Trail of Tears Diary
- Jobe Alexander & Mary Hill
The Trail of Tears is the name given to the forced relocation of Native American nations following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of tribes who did not wish to assimilate. Many Native Americans suffered from disease and exposure, and somewhere between 2,000-6,000 Cherokee died on the trail. The Trail of Tears Diary includes interviews that reveals the extraordinary resilience of the Native American nations during the trail.Pair “Excerpt from Trail of Tears Diary” with “Red Cloud’s Speech after Wounded Knee” and ask students to discuss the long history of American expansionism pushing Native Americans off of their ancestral lands and onto reservations. What were some of the costs of this relocation—what sort of tragedies ensued?
From Resistance to Reservations
This informational text details the final conflicts of the 300-year American Indian Wars and their devastating effects for Native Americans.Pair “From Resistance to Reservations” with “Red Cloud’s Speech after Wounded Knee” and ask students to discuss how Red Cloud’s description of reservation life might explain the cause of resistance among Native Americans throughout the late 1800s.
The Wounded Knee Massacre
- Digital History
In “The Wounded Knee Massacre,” a variety of personal accounts shed light on the violent conflict between the Sioux and American soldiers on December 29, 1890.Pair “The Wounded Knee Massacre” with “Red Cloud’s Speech after Wounded Knee” and ask students to discuss the events of Wounded Knee. How does each text provide unique accounts of this tragedy? What can be learned from this event?
Agreement Between the U.S. and the Spokane Indians
- Digital Public Library of America
The “Agreement Between the U.S. and the Spokane Indians” outlines the parameters of the Spokane Indians’ relocation to the Coeur d’Alene Reservation.Pair "Red Cloud's Speech after Wounded Knee" with "Agreement Between the U.S. and the Spokane Indians" and ask students to discuss the difference between the reservation life promised through treaties and the reality of life on reservations according to Red Cloud.